Statement of Qualifications on Liner Systems

Dr. J.P. Giroud is certainly one of the engineers who had the deepest influence on the design of liner systems, as pointed out by Greg Richardson in GFR Magazine (March 1999), “ . . . J.P. Giroud. Rarely does a single engineer creatively affect a particular application as much as he has.”. Dr. Giroud, considered the “father of geosynthetic liner systems” by Waste Age magazine, has developed many of the methods used for the design of geosynthetic liner systems (see, below, the section on Design and Innovative Practice on Liner Systems). He received the International Geosynthetics Society Award for the design method he developed for the evaluation of leakage through liners; this method has now been incorporated in the HELP model, a computer program for landfill design of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The design methods developed by Dr. Giroud for liner systems are used worldwide. They have been published in the more than 120 papers by J.P. Giroud on liner systems.

Dr. Giroud, published in 2015 a series of six state-of-the-art papers on geomembranes in French in mid-2015. A book on geomembranes in English, based on these papers is being prepared and will be published in 2017 by J.P. Giroud.

In addition to the development of design methods described above, Dr. Giroud has extensive experience in the design of actual liner systems. He has designed, provided design assistance, or evaluated the performance of more than 140 liner systems. Dr. Giroud has originated innovative applications (see, below, the section on Design and Innovative Practice on Liner Systems). The design method he developed for wind uplift has made it possible to construct landfills with exposed geomembrane covers, and, more generally, to design geomembrane liners exposed to wind. Also, he played a key role in the development of the use of geonets and geocomposite drainage systems in landfill liner systems.

Dr. Giroud has extensive field experience with the installation of geomembrane liners and associated geosynthetics in a variety of applications: landfills, reservoirs and ponds, dams, canals, and underground structures. He designed and developed installation strategies for a 20 m high geomembrane and geonet with respect to installation.

Dr. Giroud is also recognized for his pioneering work in construction quality assurance of liner systems. In 1982, he was the lead author of the first construction quality assurance manuals for liner systems, “Guide Specifications for Geomembrane Installation in Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities”. This report, published as part of a state-of-the-art report for the US EPA, laid the foundations for modern geosynthetic quality assurance.

Dr. Giroud has unique experience in performing forensic analyses and performance evaluation of liner systems. He has performed more than 50 of such forensic analyses and performance evaluations, and has presented several keynote lectures on the subject. Also he is co-author of a report on “Waste Containment Systems: Problems and Lessons Learned”, for the USEPA. Dr. Giroud has investigated the widest possible range of geomembrane failures, such as: geomembrane uplift by gas, air entrapped, wind, and water under-pressures; geomembrane bursting over karstic cavities and solution cavities; geomembrane failure due to slope instability and differential settlement; geomembrane failure due to puncture, stress cracking, yield stress, shrinkage, plasticizer loss, delamination, blistering, seam failure; geomembrane failure due to exposure to hot and cold weather, hail, chemicals, etc; and geomembrane failure due to inadequate workmanship, such as improper seaming.

As a result of his design and field activities, Dr. Giroud has worked with all types of geomembrane liners, for example, polymeric geomembranes, such as HDPE, LLDPE, PVC, CSPE (Hypalon), CPE, PP, butyl rubber geomembranes; and bituminous geomembranes.

Dr. Giroud has actively participated in the development of regulations for liners. He was a consultant to the US EPA on the agency’s Liner Leak Detection Rule, Double-Liner Rule, and the related technical background documents. He also was a member of the task force developing the landfill liner rules for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection; his role in the task force was to develop a rationale for the liner system regulations. In 1994, he participated in the preparation of new rules for gypsum stack liners with the Phosphate Industry Task Force and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulations. Dr. Giroud has also been asked on numerous occasions to develop “equivalency demonstrations” to show that an alternate solution for a liner system is equivalent to the liner system prescribed by regulations. He has written several papers on liner system comparison and equivalency demonstrations.

Dr. Giroud has extensive experience in teaching courses and seminars on liner systems: he has taught more than 50 courses or seminars on this subject for the US EPA, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the Association of State Dam Safety Officials, the Industrial Fabrics Association International, the Swedish Geotechnical Institute, and many other organizations, as well as companies. Recently, Dr. Giroud has taught a course on liner systems at several conferences, such as Geosynthetics 2009 (Salt Lake City), GeoAmericas 2012 (Lima). Also in 2012, Dr. Giroud presented a lecture on Lessons Learned from Failures of Geosynthetic Liner Systems in several cities in Australia.

In addition to providing consulting services for projects worldwide, Dr. Giroud has worked personally in the field on liner systems in many countries, in all parts of the world: Europe, North and South America, Africa, the Middle East, the Far East, Australia and New Zealand.

Design and Innovative Practice on Liner Systems

As a researcher, Dr. Giroud developed many methods of design for liner systems:

  • Evaluation of rate of leakage through liner systems, in particular composite liners.
  • Quantification of geomembrane wrinkles and of their impact on leakage rate.
  • Design of drainage layers for leakage detection.
  • Design of drainage layers for leachate collection systems.
  • Evaluation of strain in liner systems caused by soil settlement.
  • Design method and charts for the determination of stresses and strains in geosynthetics caused by a localized subsidence of the supporting ground.
  • Design method for the evaluation of the impact of differential movements of earth and concrete covers on liner systems.
  • Design methods for the evaluation of the stability of liner systems on slopes.
  • Design of structures connected with geomembrane liners.
  • Design method for uplift of geomembrane liners by wind (geomembrane resistance and anchorage).
  • Design of geotextile filters used in liner systems.

Dr. Giroud is the principal author of three volumes published as special issues of Geosynthetics International: “Design of Geomembrane Applications” (1995, 285 pages), “Control of Liquid Migration Using Geosynthetics Liner Systems” (1997, 251 pages), and “Liquid Collection Systems” (2000, 320 pages). These three volumes can be considered as the state of the art of liner system design. In particular, these three volumes present the detailed methodology for liner system design and performance evaluation, and for the rational comparison of liner systems. In 2004, Dr. Giroud wrote the prologue of the manual on canal liners of the International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage titled “Applications of Geosynthetics in Irrigation and Drainage Projects”.

As a practicing engineer, Dr. Giroud was instrumental in the development of the double liner concept, which he presented in a paper in 1973. He used a double liner in a liquid impoundment in 1972 and a second time in 1974. The latter was the first double geomembrane liner ever constructed, and it is still performing well after 38 years of continuous service. Applications related to liner systems originated by Dr. Giroud include:

  • First use of a geotextile associated with a geomembrane (1971).
  • First use of a double liner with a geomembrane as the primary liner, the secondary liner being made of bituminous concrete (1972)
  • First use of a double geomembrane liner (1974).
  • First use of a geonet associated with two geomembranes to form an entirely geosynthetic double liner system (1980).

In fact, the first time a geomembrane and a geotextile were in contact was on Dr. Giroud’s desk in 1971. This was followed by a series of projects in France where geotextiles were used to protect geomembranes. In addition, Dr. Giroud has been instrumental in the development of the use of geonets and geocomposite drainage systems in landfills in the United States and in the acceptance of this technique by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1984-1985).

Design of Projects Incorporating Geosynthetic Liner Systems

Dr. Giroud has designed projects with geosynthetics since 1969, including Valcros Dam where a geotextile was used for the first time in a dam (1970). His design work has included a wide variety of projects with geosynthetic liner systems, such as: reservoirs for water and chemicals, waste water lagoons, evaporation ponds, brine ponds with floating covers, underground cavities, hazardous waste and municipal solid waste landfills, ore leach pads, tailings dams, earth and rockfill dams, canals, and secondary liner containment for underground fuel tanks. Examples of 86 typical projects are listed below:

  • Technical assistance for the design of a series of water reservoirs where geotextiles and geomembrane liners were associated for the first time, France (1971).
  • Site investigations and design of the liner system (including laboratory model tests) for the Rhone-Progil Reservoir, which is a large industrial water reservoir on a steep slope, in Pont de Claix, France; this project included the first double geomembrane liner with intermediate drainage to detect leakage (1974).
  • Preparation of detailed specifications for the liner system of Esfahan Canal, Iran, which was for many years the largest canal in the world lined with a geotextile-geomembrane system (1975).
  • Conceptual design of canal liner system for the Balikh Irrigation Project, Syria, for the World Bank (1977).
  • Review of liner system design for two evaporation ponds for a uranium processing plant, Narbonne, France (1980).
  • Design of underground water reservoir liner system for the Proton Decay Experiment, 600 m under Lake Erie, Ohio; this project included the first use of a geonet leakage detection layer between two geomembrane liners and was exceptionally difficult because of the shape (vertical walls with sharp corners), size and location of the cavity, which was excavated in a salt mine (1981).
  • Conceptual and detailed design of a geomembrane/geotextile liner system for a large evaporation pond for sulfuric acid, Arlit, Niger (1981).
  • Review of the design of the liner system for a demolition debris landfill, in Birchwood, Rhode Island (1987).
  • Review of the conceptual design of the liner system for a hazardous waste landfill in Hazleton, Pennsylvania (1987).
  • Review of the design of a geomembrane-lined ash landfill in Long Island, New York (1987).
  • Review of the conceptual design and guidance for the detailed design of the liner system for a gold mine heap leach pad, in Lead, South Dakota (1987).
  • Review of the conceptual design of the liner system for a municipal waste landfill in Foster County, Pennsylvania (1987).
  • Review of the conceptual design and guidance for the detailed design of a liner system for heap leach pads for two different gold mines, near Lead, South Dakota (1988).
  • Review of liner material selection for a municipal waste landfill, Gloucester County, New Jersey (1988).
  • Assistance for geomembrane selection and specifications for a lined potable water reservoir with floating cover, Nassau, Bahamas (1988).
  • Review of preliminary design of a geomembrane-lined municipal waste landfill, Cumberland, New Jersey (1988).
  • Review of detailed design for a geomembrane-lined municipal waste landfill, West Palm Beach, Florida (1988).
  • Conceptual design for the liner system of a municipal waste landfill, Monroeville, Pennsylvania (1988).
  • Preliminary design of the liner system of a municipal waste landfill resting on existing waste, Long Island, New York (1988).
  • Review of conceptual design of hazardous waste disposal landfill, Augusta, Michigan (1988).
  • Conceptual design for a geomembrane-lined ash pond for a utility company, Binghamton, New York (1988).
  • Review of construction quality audit for the liner system of a mine heap leach pad and associated ponds, Lawrence County, South Dakota (1988).
  • Conceptual design of the rehabilitation of brine ponds using geomembrane liners, Fresno, California (1989).
  • Review of conceptual design and expert testimony for a geomembrane-lined municipal solid waste landfill, Edmonton, Canada (1989).
  • Review of problems caused by vegetation growth to the geomembrane cap of a large municipal waste landfill, Fresh Kills, New York (1989).
  • Design assistance for a liner system for a large municipal solid waste landfill, Guaynabo, Puerto Rico (1991).
  • Design of a removable geosynthetic landfill cap for a landfill with waste mining/recycling, Collier County, Florida (1991).
  • Review of design of a test pad for evaluating effectiveness of liquid collection in the geosynthetic-lined cap of a sludge pond, Ohio (1992).
  • Technical assistance for the design of geomembrane-lined Lopez Canyon Landfill, California (1993).
  • Technical assistance for the selection and specification of geomembrane for a large water reservoir in Ismailia, Egypt (1993).
  • Evaluation of long-term performance of a geomembrane liner for a low-level radioactive waste repository, Martinsville, Illinois (1993).
  • Design assistance for very large ponds lined with a geomembrane in Wilmington, North Carolina (1994).
  • Evaluation of long-term performance of geomembrane liner and geosynthetic clay liner for a low level radioactive waste disposal facility, North Carolina (1994).
  • Design assistance to Chem Nuclear Systems, Inc. for the development of “high-integrity vaults” for the storage of low-level radioactive waste (1994-1998).
  • Design assistance for detailed design of a geomembrane-lined solid waste landfill, Calce, France (1995).
  • Design assistance for wind effect on geomembrane-lined pond, Paris Airport, France (1995).
  • Evaluation of the action of PCBs on HDPE geomembranes (1995).
  • Development of design criteria and design methodology, design assistance and design review for geomembrane-lined low-level radioactive waste disposal landfill, Fernald, Ohio (1996).
  • Liner system comparison, Tesoro tank farms, Alaska (1996).
  • Design review for geomembrane-lined ponds, Anne Arundel County, Maryland, USA (1997).
  • Design assistance for geomembrane pond liner associated with above ground tanks, for BP, Algeria (1997).
  • Review of the design of an exposed geomembrane cap for a large municipal solid waste landfill in Sussex County, Delaware (1998).
  • Review of design of use of geosynthetic clay liner encapsulated between two geomembranes for two landfills, Keystone and Commonwealth (2001).
  • Member of the design team of Lachenaie Landfill Northern Extension, Montreal, Canada (2001).
  • Design assistance for bituminous geomembrane-lined underground Kildare Motorway Bypass, Ireland (2001).
  • Design assistance for a landfill with bituminous geomembrane, Bryn Pica Landfill, UK (2001).
  • Design assistance for two large water reservoirs with geomembrane liner for pump-storage station, Afourer, Morocco (2003).
  • Analysis of geomembrane liner resistance to soil cracking for the design of the rehabilitation of White Tanks flood control dam, Arizona (2004).
  • Design review for a large geomembrane-lined water reservoir, Newark, Delaware (2004).
  • Design assistance for the closure of a solid waste landfill, with partly exposed geomembrane liner, Ordot Landfill, Guam (2004-2005).
  • Review of design details for the geomembrane liner of a pump station, Costa Rica (2005).
  • Review of calculations of rate of leakage through the geomembrane liner at Darnford Lake reservoir, Canada (2005).
  • Design assistance for Kulpol Dam liner exposed to low temperatures, Russia (2006).
  • Design assistance for geomembrane durability prediction under very low temperatures at Red Dog Dam, Canada (2006).
  • Evaluation of risk of failure for the liner system of Nowingi Waste Containment Facility, New South Wales, Australia (2006).
  • Design assistance for geomembrane resistance and anchorage against wind uplift for a sludge pond in Jamaica (2006).
  • Liner system comparison, oil tank farms, Conoco, Spokane, Washington (2008).
  • Design assistance for the rehabilitation of Barragem da Pedra, Juiz de Fora, Brazil (2008).
  • Design review, Murici Tailings Dam, Tres Marias, Brazil (2008).
  • Design assistance for Toromocho Tailings Dam liner Peru (2008-2009).
  • Design assistance for the extension of Morro Agudo tailings storage facility, Brazil (2009).
  • Design assistance for Hickory Landfill, Georgia, USA, with an exposed geomembrane cover with photovoltaic cells attached to the geomembrane (2009).
  • Investigation of erosion under geomembrane liner due to water intrusion in anchor trench, Murici Tailings Dam, Tres Marias, Brazil (2010).
  • Design assistance for the drainage geocomposite in a liner system considered for the rehabilitation of Tampa Bay Reservoir, a major water reservoir in Florida (2010).
  • Leakage rate evaluation for encapsulated bentonite liner at North Milam Landfill, Illinois (2011).
  • Design review of double geomembrane ground water barrier for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment for the Fermi National Laboratory, Chicago, USA (2011).
  • Design and testing assistance, Freida River Dam, Papua New Guinea (2011).
  • Participation in the design, in particular against wind uplift, of the closure of Ordot Landfill, Guam (2011-2012).
  • International reviewer for the design of liner system to be constructed on top of existing waste, Whytes Gully Landfill, Wollongong, NSW, Australia (2011-2013).
  • Evaluation of geomembrane resistance to crack opening in case of earthquake, Tekapo Canal, New Zealand (2012).
  • Liner design assistance for some aspects of liner system for a 340 hectare reservoir, Columbus, Ohio (2012).
  • Design and testing assistance for the liner system of Tampa Bay Reservoir, a major water reservoir in Florida (2012).
  • Design of geomembrane uplift and anchorage in Tekapo Canal, New Zealand (2012).
  • Design assistance for wind uplift and anchorage of geomembrane liner for Tasiast mining project, Mauritanie (2012-2013).
  • Comparison of geomembranes for Don Sahong Dam, Laos (2013)
  • Design assistance for the liner system of the Panama Canal Water Saving Basins, Panama (2013-2015).
  • Preliminary design review and comparison of geomembranes for Las Bambas tailings dam, Peru (2014).
  • Assistance of liner system selection for the Vieux Emosson Pump Storage Station, the largest European hydraulic project currently in progress (2014-2015).
  • Analysis of geomembrane uplift, Larona Canal , Indonesia (2015).
  • Comparison of geomembrane liners for the Maryland American Water Reservoir, Herford County, Maryland (2015).
  • Review of geomembrane liner design for a spillway, confidential location (2015).
  • Comments on some aspects of Ghasr Shirin Dam design, Iran (2015).
  • Technical assistance for downdrag analysis and required shear strength for Frieda River Tailiings Dam, Papua New Guinea (2015).
  • Review of underdrain and gas venting design to prevent geomembrane uplift, Tyson Perry Waste Water Lagoon, Perry, Iowa (2015).
  • Review of design and geomembrane testing program for Pyrite Concentrate Storage Facility, Papua New Guinea (2015-2016).
  • Review of design and geomembrane selection for tailings storage facility, Fruta del Norte, Ecuador (2016).
  • Determination of action leakage rate for a series of geomembrane-lined water ponds, Australia (2016).

As a result of his recognized expertise, Dr. Giroud has been involved in the design or the performance evaluation of liner systems installed in unusual conditions, such as: liner system installed below the ground water table; liner systems installed on vertical concrete walls; liner systems installed on potentially unstable slopes; liner systems installed in a very large underground mine cavity; liner systems installed on highly compressible waste; liner systems installed on collapsible or soluble soils; liner systems located in extreme climates and extreme wind velocities; liner systems exposed to very high landfill temperatures; liner systems exposed to earthquakes, etc.

Performance and Forensic Analyses

Dr. Giroud has extensive experience in performing forensic analyses and providing expert testimony. He has performed seventy forensic analyses and performance evaluations, including more than fifty for liner systems. His first participation in a court case dates back to 1962. The first failure analysis of a geomembrane-lined facility by Dr. Giroud dates back to 1972. The latest failure analysis performed by J.P. Giroud, still in progress, are the failure of the geomembrane liner of a gypsum stack (2011-2016) and the malfunction of a large water reservoir due to geomembrane uplift (2016).

With his in-depth knowledge of geotechnical engineering and geosynthetics, Dr. Giroud is considered one of the foremost international authorities on the performance of geotechnical structures incorporating geosynthetics: keynote lecturer on geosynthetic failures at the conference “Foundation of Success: Lessons Learned from Failures” organized by the Colorado Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) (1992); keynote speaker on “Lessons Learned from Failures Associated with Geosynthetics” at the French Conference on Geosynthetics in Tours (France, 1993); keynote lecturer on “Lessons Learned from Failures Associated with Geosynthetics” at Geosynthetics ’99, the bi-annual conference of the North American Geosynthetics Society, held in Boston, USA, and author of the 66-page paper on the subject in the proceedings of the conference; keynote lecturer on “Lessons Learned from Failures and Successes Associated with Geosynthetics” at “Eurogeo 2”, the Second European Conference on Geosynthetics, held in Bologna, Italy, in 2000, and author of the 42-page paper on the subject in the proceedings of the conference. Also, Dr. Giroud is a frequently invited lecturer on the performance of structures incorporating geosynthetics and lessons learned from failures: “Kersten Lecture”, University of Minnesota/Minnesota Geotechnical Society, 1999; “Jack Hilf Memorial Lecture” The University of Colorado/US Bureau of Reclamation, 1999; and “The Nete Lecture”, Three Gorges Dam, China, 2000. Dr. Giroud is co-author of a 213-page report on “Waste Containment Systems: Problems and Lessons Learned” (2002) for the US EPA. In 2010, Dr. Giroud was co-author of the keynote lecture on “Geosynthetics Barrier Systems for Dams” presented at the 9th International Conference on Geosynthetics, in Guarujá, Brazil.

Dr. Giroud has worked in many parts of the world. In particular, he has performed forensic analyses or performance evaluations on liner systems in various countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Jordan, Niger, France, the United States, etc. Furthermore, as President of the International Geosynthetics Society, or on other occasions, Dr. Giroud has chaired, or participated in, numerous international meetings and panels. As a result of this international experience, Dr. Giroud feels comfortable working everywhere in the world, and his authority and arbitration skills are instrumental in difficult situations, in particular when international participants are involved. Also, as a result of the work he has done for regulatory agencies (preparation of background documents to support regulations, report and manual preparation, training courses), Dr. Giroud is highly respected by representatives of governmental agencies, which is helpful in the case of problems linked to the performance of regulated facilities, such as landfills and tailings dams.

56 examples of liner system performance evaluation and forensic analyses are below:

  • Tancarville water reservoir, geomembrane bursting, France (1972).
  • Hauterives brine reservoirs, geomembrane uplift France (1978).
  • Avoriaz Dam, France, geomembrane bursting (1980-1981).
  • Industrial water reservoir geomembrane uplift, Fos-sur-Mer, France (1981).
  • Evaporation ponds for sulfuric acid in Arlit, Niger (1981-1983).
  • Evaporation ponds for phosphoric acid in Aqaba, Jordan (1984).
  • Manure reservoir in Groisy, France (1983).
  • Wastewater ponds, Mountain Home, Idaho (1984).
  • Wastewater storage and treatment reservoirs, for IBM, Vermont (1985).
  • Four reservoirs of sulfuric acid in San Onofre, California (1985).
  • Landfill in Norridgewock, Maine (1986).
  • Six reservoirs of wastewater in Long Beach, California (1986).
  • Secondary containment liners for underground fuel tanks in Emeryville, California (1986).
  • A pond at a gold mine, near Nye, Montana (1987).
  • A concrete vault for low-level nuclear waste placed in a liquid state, Hanford, Washington (1987).
  • Design and interpretation of a full scale test to evaluate landfill cover stability, New Milford, Connecticut (1987-88).
  • Review of monitoring data for liner system leakage at a hazardous waste landfill, Peoria, Illinois (1989).
  • Analysis of the failure of a liner system in a landfill (sideslope stability, leakage), Fulton County, New York (1989).
  • Analysis of potential leakage out of a geomembrane-lined municipal landfill and potential ground water contamination, Azusa, California (1989).
  • Analysis of the failure (stress cracking) of an installed geomembrane liner exposed to extremely cold temperatures, Delta, Utah (1989).
  • Analysis and remedial measures for liner system instability in a landfill, Babylon, New York (1990).
  • Analysis of a waste slide and liner system failure in a hazardous waste landfill, Kettleman Hills, California (1990).
  • Analysis of the failure of a geomembrane liner in a large waste water reservoir, Canton, Mississippi (1990).
  • Analysis of failures of geomembrane seams and definition of remedial measures at a uranium mine pond, Blanding, Utah (1991).
  • Preparation of remedial measures for a pond in Soldotna, Alaska (1993).
  • Investigation of foundation soil, waste slide, and liner system failure in a landfill, Portugal (1995-1996).
  • Expert testimony on the evaluation of the design of a waste disposal landfill, including comparison of two liner systems, St. Etienne, Canada (1995-1996).
  • Design of 12 m deep excavation into waste to repair the liner system in a landfill, Michigan (1997).
  • Review of the analysis of the failure of a geomembrane liner in two wastewater lagoons, Ridgely, Maryland (1998).
  • Performance evaluation of the liner system of 16 evaporation ponds in Salar, Argentina (1998).
  • Performance evaluation of the liner system of two lagoons for deicing fluid, Dayton Aiport, Ohio (1999).
  • Performance evaluation of a landfill cap geomembrane liner with substandard seams, Clarkstown, New York (1999).
  • Design of a long-term (300-year) monitoring plan for the cover geomembrane of a large mine tailings storage facility, Crandon, Wisconsin (1999-2001).
  • Performance evaluation of a landfill cover system with defective drainage geocomposite, Buckeye, Ohio (2001).
  • Analysis of defective geomembrane liner for five waste water ponds for Kendall Jackson, California (2006).
  • Analysis of geomembrane landfill cover performance at Lynn Classical School, Massachusetts (2006).
  • Analysis of geomembrane liner performance at two reservoirs, Kau Sai Chau, Hong Kong (2007).
  • Investigation of the cause of excessive leakage at Barragem da Pedra, Brazil (2008).
  • Evaluation of geomembrane performance and durability prediction under high temperature at WGSL Landfill, Hawai (2008-2009).
  • Performance evaluation of geomembrane-lined reservoir of potable water with geomembrane uplift by ground water, San Juan, Texas (2011).
  • Analysis of causes and recommendation for remedial measures for geomembrane uplift at a contaminated soil cover site, Vermont (2011).
  • Performance evaluation of geomembrane-lined reservoir for sea water and dredge spoils, constructed on gypsum stack, location currently confidential, Florida (2011-2015).
  • Liner behavior review, Vilavilani Canal, Peru (2012).
  • Review of investigation of geomembrane liner patch disbanding, Tres Marias tailings pond, Brazil (2012).
  • Analysis of uplift and burst of geomembrane, Beebe River Mill Lagoon Cover System, New Hampshire (2012)
  • Recommendation for rehabilitation of geomembrane liner after observation of geomembrane uplift and leakage, Thompson’s Station, Tennessee (2012).
  • Failure analysis of geomembrane liner for a roller compacted concrete dam, location currently confidential, Corsica, France (2013).
  • Review of geomembrane uplift analysis and recommendations, Hyrum, Utah (2013).
  • Review of investigation of damage to geomembrane by ants, Kekaha Landfill, Hawai (2013-2015).
  • Review of investigation of water intrusion in the geomembrane lined Reedy Creek Pond, Australia (2014).
  • Recommendations for geomembrane liner replacement, Solano Reservoir, Los Angeles, California (2015).
  • Review of geomembrane performance assessment, Red Dog Mining Dam, Northwest Arctic Borough, Alaska (2015).
  • Analysis of leakage at geomembrane-lined Reverse Osmosis Pond, Woleebee Creek, Queensland, Australia (2015).
  • Failure analysis of geomembrane liner on a gypsum stack, Piney Point, Florida (2014-2016).
  • Analysis of malfunctioning and definition of remedial measures for a large water reservoir with geomembrane uplift, Boyette, Florida (2016).
  • Technical assistance for unstable geomembrane lined slope in a mining project, confidential location, Arizona (2016).

Expert Testimony and Public Hearings

Dr. Giroud has personal experience in providing expert testimony at administrative and judicial hearings, in several countries such as the United States, Canada, France, Finland. Dr. Giroud has also presented project descriptions and design concepts at public information meetings. Many of these hearings and meetings were related to liner systems. The last cases are the Pasco County Landfill (Florida) liner system, with a risk of karstic collapse under the liner system, and the San Juan water reservoir (Texas) with geomembrane uplift by entrapped air.

In expert testimonies, the authority of Dr. Giroud is clearly established by his academic credentials (Engineer from the foremost French school for civil engineers, PhD, Member of the US Academy of Engineering), his stature as pioneer of geosynthetics and Past President of the International Geosynthetics Society, and the fact that he is author of more than 400 publications.

Experience with US EPA and Regulatory Agencies

Dr. Giroud has worked extensively with the USEnvironmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and other regulatory agencies, as indicated below:

  • Report on the selection and installation of geomembranes to line experimental solar ponds, for the Solar Energy Research Institute, SERI (1981).
  • Report on the performance of geomembrane liners as part of a contract between Battelle Northwest Institute and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1982).
  • Preparation of “Guide Specifications for Geomembrane Installation in Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities”, as part of a contract between the US EPA and TRW (1983).
  • Preparation of “Assessment of Synthetic Membrane Performance at Waste Disposal Facilities” for the US EPA (1984).
  • Review of the “Permit Writer’s Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Land Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities”, as part of a contract between the US EPA and GCA (1984).
  • Participation in meetings with the US EPA for the revision of leachate collection and leakage detection rules to incorporate synthetic drainage layers (1984-1985).
  • Review of “Design, Construction, Inspection, Maintenance and Repair of Leachate Collection and Cap Drainage Systems”, as part of a contract between the US EPA and A.D. Little (1985). Subcontract through Peer Consultants.
  • Review of “Construction Quality Assurance for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facilities”, as part of a contract between the US EPA and the Research Triangle Institute (1985).
  • Review of “Avoiding Failure of Leachate Collection and Cap Drainage Systems” for the US EPA (1986).
  • Review of “Background Document: Bottom Liner Performance in Double-Lined Landfills and Surface Impoundments”, EPA/530-SW-87-013, April 1987, 301 p., Subcontract through NUS.
  • Preparation (co-author) of the “Background Document: Proposed Liner and Leak Detection Rule”, EPA/530-SW-87-015, May 1987, 526 p., Subcontract through NUS.
  • Review of “Background Document: Comparative Performance of Single-Liner and Double-Liner Systems”, October 1987, 76 p., Subcontract through NUS.
  • Evaluation of Birchwood demolition debris landfill permit application for Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (RIDEM) (1988).
  • Participation in the Technical Advisory Task Force of the Florida Department of Environmental Regulations for the preparation of new landfill rules (1990-1992).
  • Review of “Leakage Detection, Collection, and Removal System Flow Data from Operating Units — Technical Support for Proposed Liner/leak Detection System Rule”, for the US EPA (1991).
  • Review of “Action Leakage Rates for Leak Detection Systems, Supplemental Background Document for the Final Double Liners and Leak Detection Systems Rule for Hazardous Waste Landfills, Waste Piles, and Surface Impoundments”, for the US EPA (1992).
  • Participation in “Performance Criteria for Landfill Cover”, for the California Integrated Waste Management Board (1992-1993).
  • Participation in the Phosphate Industry Task Force interacting with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulations for the preparation of new rules for gypsum stack liners (1994).
  • Participation in the preparation of the national guidelines on geomembrane construction quality assurance for the French environmental regulatory agency, ADEME (1996).
  • Co-author of a comprehensive survey of problems in landfills, titled “Waste Containment Systems: Problems and Lessons Learned” (2002), for the US EPA.

Also, Dr. Giroud has been a peer reviewer of the work by the GeoSyntec Consultants team that evaluated under contract for the US EPA monitoring data from liner systems at more than a hundred landfill cells or liquid impoundments.

As a result of all this work J.P. Giroud is in a unique position to deal with regulatory agencies on liner systems.

Quality Assurance of Liner System Installation

Dr. Giroud became involved in quality assurance of liner system installation as early as 1980. The report “Guide Specifications for Geomembrane Installation in Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities”, prepared by Giroud and Kastman in 1983 and published as part of a state-of-the-art report for the EPA, laid the foundations for modern geosynthetic quality assurance. Dr. Giroud also prepared a general quality assurance manual for the installation of geosynthetic liner systems for a major US waste management firm. Finally, Dr. Giroud was instrumental in forming, at GeoSyntec Consultants, a Quality Assurance Division which, from 1984 on, has been involved in more than 1000 projects, totaling approximately 100 million square meters (one billion square feet) of geosynthetics.

Typical projects where Dr. Giroud was personally involved in quality assurance field work include:

  • Two evaporation ponds with a butyl rubber liner for a uranium processing plant, Narbonne, France (1980).
  • A large evaporation pond for sulfuric acid, Arlit, Niger (1981).
  • · Inspection of construction of a geomembrane-lined pond for industrial water, Fos-sur-Mer, France (1981-1982).
  • Geomembrane-lined brine reservoirs with floating covers in Kirkuk, Iraq (1982).
  • NIES hazardous waste landfill with a geomembrane liner and drainage geonets, Wichita, Kansas (1983).
  • A double-lined storage pond and two evaporation ponds for phosphoric acid, Aqaba, Jordan (1984).
  • Hazardous waste landfill with a geomembrane liner and drainage geonets, Emelle, Alabama (1984).
  • Hazardous waste landfill with a double geomembrane liner and drainage geonets, Arlington, Oregon (1985).
  • Landfill for waste from utility companies, Norridgewock, Maine (1986).
  • Hazardous waste landfill with a double geomembrane liner and drainage geonets, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (1986).
  • A very large gypsum pond in Rock Springs, Wyoming (1986).
  • Low-level radioactive waste disposal landfill, Fernald, Ohio (1996).
  • Periodic supervision of construction and construction quality assurance for two tailings dams in Brazil, Barragem da Pedra II, and Tres Marias-Murici in Brazil (2008-2011).

Seminars and Training Courses on Liner Systems

Dr. Giroud has taught training courses on landfills and liner systems for the personnel of the EPA and state regulatory agencies. These include:

  • Geomembrane Liners, Properties, Design and Installation in Landfills, presented in all 10 regions of EPA (1983-1984), in the USA and Puerto Rico.
  • Permit Writer’s Training Seminar on Synthetic Liners, presented to: EPA Region 4 in Atlanta, EPA Region 10 in Sacramento, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia, EPA Region 2 in New York, and EPA Region 6 in Dallas (1985); EPA Region 7 in Kansas City, and EPA Region 5 in Chicago (1986).
  • Permit Writer’s Training Seminar on Landfill Covers, presented to: EPA Region 2 in Puerto Rico, EPA Region 10 in Sacramento, and EPA Region 5 in Chicago (1986).
  • Course on liner systems in landfills in all 8 states of EPA Region 4 under contract with EPA Region 4 (1994).
  • On several occasions, since 1992, Dr. Giroud has taught a course on geosynthetic liner systems in landfills sponsored by Florida DEP (in conjunction with the University of Florida).

In addition, Dr. Giroud has taught short courses, presented seminars, and given lectures as follows:

  • Seminar on geosynthetic liner systems, in particular in irrigation canals, for the World Bank in Washington, D.C. (1970).
  • Seminar on geomembrane liners for Envirosafe, a waste management company, Horsham, Pennsylvania (1982).
  • Seminars on geomembrane liners for IBM, Austin, Texas (1985).
  • Short course on geomembrane liners organized by the Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI), Cincinnati, Ohio (1985), and New Orleans, Louisiana (1987).
  • Seminar on geosynthetic liner systems for Waste Management Inc., Chicago (1986, 1988).
  • Short courses on geosynthetic liner systems for the University of Wisconsin, Madison (1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012).
  • Short courses on geosynthetic liner systems for the University of Lehigh (1986, 1987, 1988).
  • Short course on geosynthetic liner systems for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado (1988).
  • Lecture on lessons learned from failures in Denver (1992).
  • Keynote lecture on lessons learned from failures in Boston (1999).
  • Lecture on lessons learned from failures in Boulder, Colorado, Jack Hilf Lecture (1999).
  • Lecture on lessons learned from failures in Minneapolis, Kersten Lecture (1999).
  • Keynote lecture on lessons learned from failures in Bologna, Italy, EuroGeo (2000).
  • Lecture on lessons learned from failures at Three Gorges Dam, China, The Nete Lecture (2000).
  • Lecture on lessons learned from successes and failures in Vienna, Austria, The Vienna Terzaghi Lecture (2005).
  • Series of three seminars on liner systems for landfills for GSE, a large geosynthetic manufacturer, in Walnut Creek (California) (2005), Houston and New Jersey (2006).
  • Short course on geosynthetic liners in canals in Lisbon, Portugal (2007).
  • Lecture on geosynthetics in dams in Lisbon, Portugal (2007).
  • Short course on geosynthetics in dams, in Cancun, Mexico (2008).
  • Short course on geosynthetics in hydraulic structures (reservoirs, dams, canals) in Salt Lake City (2009).
  • Series of four seminars on liner systems for landfills for GSE, a large geosynthetic manufacturer, in Columbus, Chicago, Denver (2010), Orlando and Atlanta (2011).
  • Short course on geosynthetics in dams, in Lima, Peru (2010).
  • Lecture on geomembranes in canals and dams as part of a seminar in Christchurch, New Zealand (2011).
  • Short course on liner systems in Lima, Peru (2012).
  • Lecture on geomembranes in dams in Ankara, Turkey (2012).
  • Lectures on lessons learned from failures of geosynthetic liner systems in several cities in Australia: Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Perth (2012).
  • Invited lecture on Geosynthetics in Dams at the Eurogeo 6 conference, in Ljubljana, Slovenia (2016).

Publications on Liner Systems

Dr. Giroud has published more than 120 papers on liner systems.

See the list below.

List of Publications Related to Liner Systems by J.P. Giroud

126 References

Huot, P. & Giroud, J. P., 1973, “Perméabilité a l’eau de la feuille de butyl”, Comptes-Rendus du 11eme Congres International des Grands Barrages, 5, Madrid, Juin 1973, pp. 556-558. (in French)

Huot, P. & Giroud, J.P., 1973, “Position du dispositif d’étanchéité”, Comptes-Rendus du 1leme Congres International des Grands Barrages, 5, Madrid, Juin 1973, pp. 558-562. (in French)

Giroud, J.P., 1973, “L’étanchéité des retenues d’eau par feuilles déroulées”, Annales de l’ITBTP, 312, TP 161, Decembre 1973, pp. 94-112. (in French)

Huot, P. & Giroud, J.P., 1974, “L’utilisation des élastomères et des plastiques pour l’étanchéité des stockages en terre – Application à la lutte contre la pollution”, Revue Générale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques, 51, 5, 542, Juin 1974, pp. 426-428. (in French)

Giroud, J.P. & Huot, P., 1977, “Conception des barrages en terre et en enrochements munis d’étanchéité par feuille mince”, Conférence Européenne de la CIID, Thème 3, Rome, Mai 1977. (in French)

Giroud, J.P., 1977, “Conception de l’ étanchéité des ouvrages hydrauliques par geomembranes”, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Plastic and Rubber Waterproofing in Civil Engineering, Vol. 1, Session 3, Paper 13, Liege, Belgium, Jun 1977, (in French), pp. III 13.1-III 13.17.

Giroud, J.P., 1977, “Discussion sur la conception de l’ étanchéité des ouvrages hydrauliques par geomembranes”, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Plastic and Rubber Waterproofing in Civil Engineering, Discussions de la Session 3, Liege, Juin 1977, pp. 13.9-13.21. (in French)

Giroud, J.P., 1978, “Utilisation de géotextiles non-tissés dans les travaux hydrauliques”, Construire, Casablanca, 14 January 1978, pp. 4-5, 21 January 1978, pp. 6-7, 28 January 1978, p. 5. (in French)

Giroud, J.P., 1979, “Utilisation des géotextiles non-tissés dans les travaux hydrauliques – Gebruik vam nietgeweven geotextilien voor waterbouwkundige werken”, Excavator, 4, Avril 1979, pp. 1-14. (in French and Dutch)

Giroud, J.P., 1982, “Design of Geotextiles Associated with Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Vol. 1, Las Vegas, Aug 1982, pp. 37-42.

Giroud, J.P., 1982, “Filter Criteria for Geotextiles”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Vol. 1, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 1982, pp. 103-108.

Giroud, J.P., 1982, “Discussion on Design of Geotextiles Associated with Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Vol. 4, Las Vegas, Aug 1982, p. 25.

Giroud, J.P., 1982, “Discussion on Filter Criteria for Geotextiles”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Geotextiles, Vol. 4, Las Vegas, Aug 1982, pp. 36-38.

Giroud, J.P., 1984, “Analysis of Stresses and Elongations in Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomembranes, Vol. II, Denver, CO, Jun 1984, pp. 481-486.

Giroud, J.P. & Goldstein, J.S., 1982, “Geomembrane Liner Design”, Waste Age, Vol. 13, No. 9, Sep 1982, pp. 27- 30.

Giroud, J.P., 1983, “Rapport général sur les bassins revêtus de geomembranes”, Comptes-rendus du colloque sur l’étanchéité superficielle des bassins, barrages et canaux, Volume II, Paris, Février 1983, pp. 75-90d. (in French)

Giroud, J.P. & Frobel, R.K., 1983, “Geomembrane Products”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Fall 1983, pp. 38-42.

Giroud, J.P., & Frobel, R.K., 1983, “Geomembrane Products”, Water Power and Dam Construction, London, Mar 1984,

Giroud, J.P., 1984, “Opening Address”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomembranes, Vol. 1, Denver, CO, Jun 1984, pp. 1-3.

Giroud, J.P., 1984, “Aging of PVC Geomembranes in Uranium Mine Tailing Ponds”, Proceedings of the International Conference of Geomembranes, Vol. 2, Denver, CO, Jun 1984, pp. 311-316.

Williams, N., Giroud, J.P., & Bonaparte, R., 1984, “Properties of Plastic Nets for Liquid and Gas Drainage Associated with Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomembranes, Vol. II, Denver, CO, Jun 1984, pp. 399-404.

Giroud, J.P. & Stone, J.L., 1984, “Design of Geomembrane Liner for the Proton Decay Experiment”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomembranes, Vol. 2, Denver, CO, Jun 1984, pp. 469-474.

Giroud, J.P., 1984, “Geomembrane Liners: Accidents and Preventive Measures”, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on “Plastic and Rubber Waterproofing in Civil Engineering”, Vol. 1, Session 4, Liege, Belgium, Jun 1984, pp. 4.2.1-4.2.6.

Giroud, J.P., 1984, “Impermeability: The Myth and a Rational Approach”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomembranes, Vol. 1, Denver, CO, USA, Jun 1984, pp. 157-162.

Giroud, J.P., & Ah-Line, C., 1984, “Design of Earth and Concrete Covers for Geomembranes”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Geomembranes, Vol. 2, Denver, CO, USA, Jun 1984, pp. 487-492.

Giroud, J.P. & Bonaparte, R., 1984, “Waterproofing and Drainage: Geomembranes and Synthetic Drainage Layers”, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Plastic and Rubber Waterproofing in Civil Engineering, Vol. 1, Session 3A, Liege, Belgium, Jun 1984, pp. 3A.1.1-3A.1.6.

Bonaparte, R., Williams, N., & Giroud, J.P., 1985, “Innovative Leachate Collection Systems for Hazardous Waste Containment Facilities”, Proceedings of the Geotechnical Fabrics Conference ’85, IFAI, Cincinnati, OH, Jun 1985, pp. 9-34.

Giroud, J.P. & Fluet, J.E., Jr., 1986, “Quality Assurance of Geosynthetic Lining Systems”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 3, No. 4, Elsevier, London, England, 1986, pp. 249-287.

Bonaparte, R., Giroud, J.P., Wallace, R.B., Ah-Line, C., & Prillaman, J.G., 1987, “Background Document on Proposed Liner and Leak Detection Rule”, EPA/530-SW-87-015, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, May 1987, 526 p.

Giroud, J.P., Bonaparte, R., Beech, J.F., & Gross, B.A., 1989, “Load-carrying Capacity of a Soil Layer Supported by a Geosynthetic Overlying a Void”, Proceedings of the International Geotechnical Symposium on Theory and Practice of Earth Reinforcement, Yamanouchi, T., Miura, N., and Ochiai, H., Editors, Fukuoka- Kyushu, Japan, October 1988, pp. 185-190.

Bonaparte, R., Giroud, J.P., & Gross, B.A., 1989, “Rates of Leakage through Landfill Liners”, Proceedings of Geosynthetics ’89, Vol. 1, IFAI, San Diego, CA, February 1989, pp. 18-29.

Giroud, J.P. & Beech, J.F., 1989, “Stability of Soil Layers on Geosynthetic Lining Systems”, Proceedings of Geosynthetics ’89, Vol. 1, IFAI, San Diego, CA, February 1989, pp. 35-46.

Giroud, J.P. & Cazzuffi, D.A., 1989, “Uses of Geosynthetics for Environmental Control”, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, August 1989, Vol. 5, pp. 3119-3125.

Giroud, J.P. & Bonaparte, R., 1989, “Leakage through Liners Constructed with Geomembranes, Part I: Geomembrane Liners”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1989, pp. 27-67.

Giroud, J.P. & Bonaparte, R., 1989, “Leakage through Liners Constructed with Geomembranes, Part II: Composite Liners”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1989, pp. 71-111.

Giroud, J.P., Khatami, A., & Badu-Tweneboah, K., 1989, “Evaluation of the Rate of Leakage through Composite Liners”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1989, pp. 337-340.

Giroud, J.P., 1990, “Protect the Geomembrane Cap!”, Waste Age, (Landfills Issue) Vol 21, No. 3, March 1990, pp. 58-60.

Gross, B.A., Bonaparte, R., & Giroud, J.P., 1990, “Evaluation of Flow from Landfill Leakage Detection Layers”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Vol. 2, The Hague, The Netherlands, May 1990, pp. 481-486.

Giroud, J.P., Swan, Jr., R.H., P.J. Richer, & P.R. Spooner, 1990, “Geosynthetic Landfill Cap: Laboratory and Field Tests, Design and Construction”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Vol. 2, The Hague, The Netherlands, May 1990, pp. 493-498.

Giroud, J.P., Beech, J.F., & Khatami, A., 1990, “Stability of Solid Waste on Geosynthetic Lining Systems”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Vol. 2, The Hague, The Netherlands, May 1990, p. 526.

Giroud, J.P., 1990, “Discussion of Geosynthetic Landfill Cap: Laboratory and Field Tests, Design and Construction”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Vol. 3, The Hague, May 1990, pp. 1097-1098.

Giroud, J.P., 1990, “General Report on Waste Disposal”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Vol. 3, The Hague, The Netherlands, May 1990, p. 1205.

Gross, B.A., Bonaparte, R., & Giroud, J.P., 1990, “Discussion of Evaluation of Flow from Landfill Leakage Detection Layers”, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Vol. 3, The Hague, The Netherlands, May 1990, pp. 1095-1096.

Giroud, J.P., Bonaparte, R., Beech, J.F., & Gross, B.A., 1990, “Design of Soil Layer-Geosynthetic Systems Overlying Voids”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 9, No. 1, Elsevier, London, England, 1990, pp. 11-50.

Giroud, J.P. & Peggs, I.D., 1990, “Geomembrane Construction Quality Assurance”, Waste Containment Systems: Construction, Regulation, and Performance, Geotechnical Special Publication No. 26, ASCE, R. Bonaparte, Editor, November 1990, pp. 190-225.

Cazzuffi, D. & Giroud, J.P., 1991, “I Geosintetici nei Sistemi di Impermeabilizzazione e Drenaggio delle Discariche Controllate” (Geosynthetics in Systems for Waterproofing and Drainage of Secure Landfills), Atti delle Conferenze di Geotecnica di Torino – XV Ciclo – “La Ingegneria Geotecnica nella Salvaguardia e Recupero del Territorio”, Torino, Italy, November 1991, 28 p. (in Italian)

Giroud, J.P., Badu-Tweneboah, K., & Bonaparte, R., 1992, “Rate of Leakage Through a Composite Liner due to Geomembrane Defects”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1992, pp. 1-28.

Giroud, J.P., & Morel, N., 1992, “Analysis of Geomembrane Wrinkles”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992, pp. 255-276.

Tisinger, L.G. & Giroud, J.P., 1993, “The Durability of HDPE Geomembranes”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 11, No. 6, September 1993, pp. 4-8.

Beech, J.F., Giroud, J.P., & Wallace, R.B., 1993, “Geosynthetics in Hazardous Waste Landfill, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA”, Geosynthetics Case Histories, Raymond, G.P. & Giroud, J.P., Eds., ISSMFE, 1993, pp. 28-29.

Tisinger, L.G. & Giroud, J.P., 1993, “The Durability of PVC Geomembranes”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 11, No. 7, October 1993, pp. 12-16.

Giroud, J.P. & Tisinger, L.G., 1993, “The Influence of Plasticizers on the Performance of PVC Geomembranes”, Geosynthetic Liner Systems: Innovations, Concerns and Designs, Koerner, R.M. and Wilson-Fahmy, R.F., Eds., Proceedings of the 7th Symposium of the Geosynthetic Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA, December 1993, pp. 169-196.

Giroud, J.P., 1994, “North American Experience on Geosynthetics in Landfills”, L’Ingegnere e l’Architetto, Vol. 1, No. 1-4, 1994, Proceedings of the 7th Italian Conference on Geosynthetics, held in Bologna, Italy, October 1993, pp. 69-72. (in English with Italian Abstract)

Rowe, R.K. & Giroud, J.P., 1994, “Quality Assurance of Barrier Systems for Landfills”, IGS News, Vol. 10, No. 1, March 1994, pp. 6-8.

Giroud, J.P., Badu-Tweneboah, K., & Soderman, K.L., 1994, “Evaluation of Landfill Liners”, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products, Singapore, Sep 1994, Vol. 3, pp. 981-986.

Giroud, J.P., 1995, “Wrinkle Management for Polyethylene Geomembranes Requires Active Approach”, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, Vol. 13, No. 3, April 1995, pp. 14-17.

Giroud, J.P., Bonaparte, R., & Sembenelli, P., 1995, “Selection of Waste Containment Systems in Developing Countries”, Proceedings of the Fifth International Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, October 1995, Vol. 2, pp. 149-157.

Giroud, J.P., & Houlihan, M.F., 1995, “Design of Leachate Collection Layers”, Proceedings of the Fifth International Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, October 1995, Vol. 2, pp. 613-640.

Giroud, J.P., 1995, “Determination of Geosynthetic Strain due to Deflection”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 635-641.

Giroud, J.P., Pelte, T., & Bathurst, R.J., 1995, “Uplift of Geomembranes by Wind”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 897-952. (Errata, 1997, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 187-207, and 1999, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 521-522.)

Giroud, J.P., Williams, N.D., Pelte, T., & Beech, J.F., 1995, “Stability of Geosynthetic-Soil Layered Systems on Slopes”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 1115-1148.

Giroud, J.P., Bachus, R.C., & Bonaparte, R., 1995, “Influence of Water Flow on the Stability of Geosynthetic-Soil Layered Systems on Slopes”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 1149-1180.

Bonaparte, R., & Giroud, J.P., 1996, “Waste Containment Systems for Pollution Control: Part II-Hydraulic Design and Performance”, Proceedings, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series, Recent Advances in Ground-Water Pollution Control and Remediation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 437-478.

Zornberg, J.G., & Giroud, J.P., 1997, “Uplift of Geomembranes by Wind – Extension of Equations”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.187-207. (Errata: 1999, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 521-522).

Giroud, J.P., Gross, B.A., Bonaparte, R., & McKelvey, J.A., 1997, “Leachate Flow in Leakage Collection Layers Due to Defects in Geomembrane Liners”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 215-292.

Giroud, J.P., Khire, M.V., & Soderman, K.L., 1997, “Liquid Migration Through Defects in a Geomembrane Overlain and Underlain by Permeable Media”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 293-321. (Errata, 1999, Vol.6, No. 1, p 69)

Giroud, J.P., Khire, M.V., & McKelvey, J.A., 1997, “Rate of Leachate Migration Through a Defect in a Geomembrane Underlain by a Saturated Permeable Medium”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 323-334.

Giroud, J.P., 1997, “Equations for Calculating the Rate of Liquid Migration Through Composite Liners Due to Geomembrane Defects”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 335-348.

Giroud, J.P., King, T.D., Sanglerat, T.R., Hadj-Hamou, T., & Khire, M.V., 1997, “Rate of Liquid Migration Through Defects in a Geomembrane Placed on a Semi-Permeable Medium”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 349-372.

Giroud, J.P., Soderman, K.L., & Badu-Tweneboah, K., 1997, “Optimal Configuration of a Double Liner System Including a Geomembrane Liner and a Composite Liner”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 373-389.

Giroud, J.P., Badu-Tweneboah, K., & Soderman, K.L., 1997, “Comparison of Leachate Flow Through Compacted Clay Liners and Geosynthetic Clay Liners in Landfill Liner Systems”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 391-431.

Giroud, J.P., Rad, N.S., & McKelvey, J.A., 1997, “Evaluation of the Surface Area of a GCL Hydrated by Leachate Migrating Through Geomembrane Defects”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4, pp. 433-462.

Badu-Tweneboah, K., Giroud, J.P., Carlson, D.S., &. Schmertmann, G.R., 1997, “Discussion of ‘Field Evaluation of Protective Covers for Landfill Geomembrane Liners Under Construction Loading’”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 543-544.

Matasovic, N., Kavazanjian, E., Jr., & Giroud, J.P., 1998, “Newmark Seismic Deformation Analysis for Geosynthetic Interfaces”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Geosynthetics in Earthquake Engineering Vol. 5, Nos. 1-2, pp. 237-264.

Giroud, J.P., Houlihan, M.F. Bachus, R.C., & Qureshi, S., 1998, “Clogging Potential of Geosynthetic Leachate Collection Layers by Fine Particles from Soil Protective Layers”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Geosynthetics, Vol. 1, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, March 1998, pp. 185-190.

Gleason, M.H., Houlihan, M.F., & Giroud, J.P., 1998, “An Exposed Geomembrane Cover System for a Landfill”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Geosynthetics, Vol. 1, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, March 1998, pp. 211-218.

Giroud, J.P., Soderman, K.L., Khire, M.V., & Badu-Tweneboah, K., 1998, “New Developments in Landfill Liner Leakage Evaluation”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Geosynthetics, Vol. 1, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, March 1998, pp. 261-268.

Badu-Tweneboah, K., Giroud, J.P., Carlson, D.S., & Schmertmann, G.R., 1998, “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Geomembrane Liner Protection”, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Geosynthetics, Vol. 1, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, March 1998, pp. 279-284.

Matichard, Y, Pelte, T., & Giroud, J.P., 1998, “Démarche de Qualité pour la Mise en Oeuvre des Geosynthetiques”, ADEME Editions, Angers, France, 87 p. (in French)

Badu-Tweneboah, K., Tisinger, L.G., Giroud, J.P., & Smith, B.S., 1999, “Assessment of the Long-Term Performance of Polyethylene Geomembrane and Containers in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Landfill”, Proceedings of Geosynthetics ’99, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 1999, IFAI, Vol. 2, pp. 1055-1070.

Gleason, M.H., Germain, A.M., Vasuki, N.C., & Giroud, J.P., 1999, “Design and Construction of an Exposed Geomembrane Cover for a Solid Waste Landfill”, Proceedings of the Seventh International Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, October 1999, Vol. 3, pp. 335-342.

Giroud, J.P. Gleason, M.H., & Zornberg, J.G, 1999, “Design of Geomembrane Anchorage Against Wind Action”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 481-507.

Giroud, J.P., Zornberg, J.G., & Zhao, A., 2000, “Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 285-380.

Giroud, J.P., Zhao, A., & Bonaparte, R., 2000, “The Myth of Hydraulic Transmissivity Equivalency Between Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 381-401.

Giroud, J.P., Zornberg, J.G., & Beech, J.F., 2000, “Thickness of Liquid in Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers Comprising Two Sections With Different Slopes”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 453-489.

Giroud, J.P. & Zhao, A., 2000, “Design of Liquid Collection Layer With Radial Flow”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 491-527.

Giroud, J.P., & Soderman, K.L., 2000, “Criterion for Acceptable Bentonite Loss From a GCL Incorporated Into a Liner System”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 529-581.

Giroud, J.P., Palmer, B., & Dove. J.E., 2000, “Calculation of Flow Velocity in Pipes as a Function of Flow Rate”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 583-600.

Giroud, J.P., & Bonaparte, R., 2001, “Geosynthetics in Liquid-Containing Structures”, Chapter 26, pp 789-824, in Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Handbook, R.K. Rowe, Editor, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1088 p.

Thiel, R.S., Daniel, D.E., Erickson, R.B., Kavazanjian, E. & Giroud, J.P., 2001, “The GSE GundSeal GCL Design Manual”, September 2001, 8 chapters plus appendices.

Richardson, G.N., Giroud, J.P., & Zhao, A., 2002, “Lateral Drainage Update – Part 1”, Designers Forum, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, IFAI, Roseville, Minnesota, USA, January/February 2002, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 12-17.

Richardson, G.N., Giroud, J.P., & Zhao, A., 2002, “Lateral Drainage Update – Part 2”, Designers Forum, Geotechnical Fabrics Report, IFAI, Roseville, Minnesota, USA, March 2002, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 18-21.

Giroud, J.P., Thiel, R.S., Kavazanjian, E., & Lauro, F.J., 2002, “Hydrated area of a bentonite layer encapsulated between two geomembranes”, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Nice, France, Balkema, Vol. 2, pp. 827-832.

Gross, B.A., Bonaparte, R., & Giroud, J.P., 2002, “Waste Containment Systems: Problems and Lessons Learned”, Appendix F in Assessment and Recommendations for Optimal Performance of Waste Containment Systems, R. Bonaparte, D.E. Daniel, and R.M. Koerner, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, 213 p.

Giroud, J.P., & Touze-Foltz, N., 2003, “Geomembranes for Landfills”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 124-133.

Touze-Foltz, N., & Giroud, J.P., 2003, “Empirical equations for calculating the rate of liquid flow through composite liners due to geomembranes defects”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 215-233.

Giroud, J.P., & Daniel, D.E., 2004, “Liquid migration in an encapsulated bentonite layer due to geomembrane defects”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 311-329.

Giroud, J.P., Thiel, R.S., & Kavazanjian, E., 2004, “Hydrated area of a bentonite layer encapsulated between two geomembranes”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Geosynthetic Clay Liners, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 330-354.

Giroud, J.P., “Prologue”, pp. xi-xiii, in “Applications of Geosynthetics in Irrigation and Drainage Projects” by H. Plusquellec, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, September 2004, 79 p.

Giroud, J.P., “Criteria for Granular and Geotextile Filters”, IGS News, Vol. 20, No. 3, November 2004, pp. 12-14.

Giroud, J.P., 2005, “Quantification of Geosynthetics Behavior”, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Giroud Lectures, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 2-27.

Giroud, J.P., & Touze-Foltz, N., 2005, “Equations for calculating the rate of liquid flow through geomembrane defects of uniform width and finite or infinite length”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 186-189.

Touze-Foltz, N., & Giroud, J.P., 2005, “Empirical equations for calculating the rate of liquid flow through composite liners due to large circular defects in the geomembrane”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 200-202.

Giroud, J.P., 2005, “Poisson’s ratio of unreinforced geomembranes and nonwoven geotextiles subjected to large strains”, Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 22, No 4, pp. 297-305.

Thiel, R., Giroud, J.P., Erickson, R., Criley, K., & Bryk, J., 2006, “Laboratory measurements of GCL shrinkage under cyclic changes in temperature and hydration conditions”, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Yokohama, Japan, September 2006, Vol. 1, pp. 157-162.

Giroud, J.P., Wallace, R.B., & Castro, C.J., 2006, “Improved methodology for geomembrane wind uplift design”, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Yokohama, Japan, September 2006, Vol. 1, pp. 225-230.

Zhao, A., & Giroud, J.P., 2006, “Use of composite strips in leachate collection systems”, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Yokohama, Japan, September 2006, Vol. 1, pp. 317-320.

Wallace, R.B., Giroud, J.P., & Shanks, M., 2006, “Impacts of construction practices and reservoir filling on geomembrane uplift”, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Yokohama, Japan, September 2006, Vol. 2, pp. 615-618.

Giroud, J.P., 2009, “An explicit expression for strain in geomembrane uplifted by wind”, Geosynthetics International, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 500-502.

Giroud, J.P., 2010, “Development of criteria for geotextiles and granular filters”, Prestigious Lecture, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Guarujá, Brazil, May 2010, Vol. 1, pp. 45-64.

Cazzuffi, D., Giroud, J.P., Scuero, A., & Vaschetti, G., 2010, “Geosynthetic barrier systems for dams”, Keynote Lecture, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Guarujá, Brazil, May 2010, Vol. 1, pp. 115-163.

Perera, L.A.K., Giroud, J.P., & Roberts, M.G., 2011, “Exposed Geomembrane Cover Design: A Simplified Design Approach”. Proceedings of GeoFrontiers 2011, Dallas, USA, pp. 1443-1452.

Thiel, R.S. & Giroud, J.P., 2011, “Important Considerations for Leakage Control of Exposed Geomembrane-Lined Ponds”. Proceedings of 13th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia 2011, Italy, 12 p.

Botelho, K., Heynes, O., & Giroud, J.P., 2013, “Evaluating wind uplift for exposed géomembranes using computer modeling”, Paper 1187, Proceedings of Geosynthetics 2013, Long Beach, California, 10 p.

Blanco, M., Noval, A.M., Solera, R., Castillo, F., Aguiar, E., Vara, T., Pargada, L., Rico, G., & Giroud, J.P., 2013, “Comportamiento de la misma geomembrana de PVC-P instalada a la intemperie y en un embalse cubierto”, Proceedings del Congresso Geosintec Iberia 1, Sevilla, Spain, pp. 114-119. (In Spanish)

Blanco, M., Crespo, M. A., Noval, A. M., Leiro, A., Mateo, B., Aguiar, E., Vara, T., & Giroud, J.P., 2013, “La durabilidad de geomembranas de PVC-P en función del aditivo utilizado como plastificante”, Proceedings del Congresso Geosintec Iberia 1, Sevilla, Spain, pp. 138-146. (In Spanish)

Giroud, J.P., Jacka, N., Dann, C., & Eldridge, J, 2013, “Hydropower canal geomembrane liner analytical techniques”, Proceedings of The Conference on Multiple Uses of Dams and Reservoirs, NZSOLD/ANCOLD, Rotorua, New Zealand, 12 p.

Noval, A,M., Blanco, M., Castillo, F., Leiro, A., Mateo, B., Giroud, J.P., Aguiar, E., Torregrosa, J.B., & Sanchez, F.J., 2014, “Influence of orientation on ageing of a reinforced PVC geomembrane”, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Berlin, 8 p.

Giroud, J.P., & Gourc, J.P., 2014, “The first double geomembrane liner forty years later”, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Berlin, 8 p.

Peggs, I.D., & Giroud, J.P., 2014, “Action leakage rate for reservoir geomembrane liners”, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Geosynthetics, Berlin, 10 p.

Giroud, J.P., & Gourc, J.P., 2015, “The first double geomembrane liner forty years later – Part 1”, Geosynthetics Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 1, February-March 2015, pp. 14-22.

Giroud, J.P., & Gourc, J.P., 2015, “The first double geomembrane liner forty years later – Part 2”, Geosynthetics Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 2, April-May 2015, pp. 20-26.

Giroud, J.P., & Wallace, R.B., 2016, “Quantified Impact of Geomembrane Wrinkles on Leakage Through Composite Liners”, GeoAmericas 2016, Proceedings of the Third PanAmerican Conference on Geosynthetics, Miami Beach, USA, April 2016, 10 p.

Blanco, M., Solera, R., Giroud, J.P., Pérez Sánchez, M., Redón Santafé, M., Sánchez Romero, F.J., Torregrosa Soler, J.B., & Zapata Raboso, F.A., 2016, “Characteristics of six PVC-P geomembranes installed in reservoirs in Spanish Mediterranean Basin”, Proceedings of Eurogeo 6, pp. 600-608.

Blanco, M., Noval, A.M., Crespo, M.A., Cazzuffi, D., Giroud, J.P., Aguiar, E, & Vara, T., 2016, “Evolution over time of PVC-P geomembrane used at Barlovento Reservoir”, Proceedings of Eurogeo 6, pp. 631-641.

Giroud, J.P., 2017, “Leakage Control using Geomembrane Liners”, The Victor de Mello Lecture, Soils and Rocks, São Paulo, Brazil, September-December 2016, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 213-235.


Dr. J.P. Giroud ECP, PhD

Member of the
US National Academy of Engineering


To contact J.P. Giroud: jpg@jpgiroud.com